Content Summary

 

 PETROCHEMICAL VALVES

 VALVES

Valves are mechanical devices able to control, regulate and interrupt the flow and the pressure of a pipeline or a process that conveys liquids, gasses, vapors, slurries, etc. A valve is an essential component of a piping system and one of the most critical components determining its reliability, safety, and performance.

 COMMON TYPES OF VALVES

The main types of valves are gate valves, globe valves, check valves, ball valves, butterfly valves, y strainers, basket strainers, plug valves, pinch, pressure relief and safety valves, diaphragm valves etc. Each type has then several subtypes (example ball valves may be floating or trunnion). A valve may be self-operated or manual or actuated (electric, pneumatic, hydraulic actuators and gas over oil actuators are available). Piping designers shall choose the correct valve type, size, rating, construction materials (body and trim) by analyzing the required valve functions within the piping system, the type of media to be conveyed (oil, gas, water, steam, solids) and the working pressure and working temperature of the pipeline.

 VALVES BASIC FUNCTIONS

Valves may be used to execute the following basic functions:

  1. Start/stop the flow of a fluid like hydrocarbons, gas, steam, water, acids (on/off)
  2. Reduce/increase a fluid flow
  3. Control the direction of a fluid flow (control valve)
  4. Regulate a flow or the pressure of a petrochemical process
  5. Protect a piping system in case of overpressures (pressure relief valve, safety valve)

 FLANGED, WELDED AND THREADED CONNECTIONS

To operate properly, valves shall be connected to pipes to ensure that the pipeline doesn’t leak. The three main pipe/valve connections are summarized in the table below:

FLANGED ENDS

FLANGED ENDS

A flanged connection requires the use of two flanges with the related bolts, nuts and washers.

Flanged connections are widely used in pipeline systems regardless the pressure and the bore of the valves and the connected pipes.

Flanged connections are generally a cheap solution to join pipes with valves

WELDED ENS (SOCKET, BUTT WELD)

WELDED ENS (SOCKET, BUTT WELD)

In case of welded connections, the valve is welded directly onto the pipe. This type of connection is generally more expensive but guarantees a good protection against leakages. Weld connections are used in high pressure pipelines and can be of two types, butt weld and socket weld (the valve has a socket and the pipe is welded therein, generally in case of pipelines below 2 inches of diameter).

THREADED ENDS

THREADED ENDS

In this case the valve is connected to the pipe by a thread (tapered thread). This type of connection is generally used for low pressure pipelines with bore size lower than 2 inches. It is also a very cheap connection, because no other material, then the pipe and the valve are necessary, and no flanges, no bolts and no weld operation are needed. In case of leakage, however, the repair chances are limited in case of threaded connections.

Generally, a valve is manufactured by assembling the following key parts: the body, the bonnet, the trim, the actuator and the packing:

VALVE BODY

 VALVE BODY

The body, sometimes called the shell, is a key component of a pressure valve. It serves as the main element of a valve assembly because it keeps the other parts together. The body shall resist fluid pressure loads from the connecting piping system. Valve ends are designed to connect the valve to the piping or the nozzles using several types of connections, as for instance butt weld or socket weld, threaded or flanged. Valve bodies may be manufactured out of cast steel or forged steel in a variety of forms and material grades. The most common are Carbon steel, austenitic stainless steel (SS304, SS316, SS321, etc), superaustenitic stainless steels (SMO 254), duplex and super duplex stainless steels, martensitic stainless steel, duplex, Inconel, Incoloy, Monel, non ferrous materials such as aluminum bronze or less noble materials as cast iron.

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VALVE BONNET

 VALVE BONNET

The bonnet (sometimes called “valve cover”) is the second most important element of a valve, after the body, to have a good seal of the valve and pressure rating. One of the key scopes of the bonnet is to allow the access to the internal parts of the valve (disc, seat, stem, etc) if the maintenance of the valve is required. Alike the body of the valve, bonnets are available in many designs and models (the most typical are: bolted bonnet, round bolted bonnet, welded bonnet, pressure seal bonnet). Bonnets are manufactured in cast steel or forged steel, and the same material of the body valve is used. The bonnet is connected to the body of the valve by a threaded, bolted, or welded joint connection – and gaskets are used to ensure a tight seal. Manufacturers strive to optimize the bonnet design and its tightness. Bonnets are indeed an important element of the overall valve design and have a direct impact on the manufacturing and assembly process as well as on the overall size and dimensions of the valve. Furthermore, bonnets represent a remarkable portion of overall cost of a valve.

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VALVE DISC

  VALVE TRIM

The valve trim is a collective name for all the parts of the valve that can be substituted or replaced in case of maintenance of the valve. Typically, the trim includes components as the disc, the seat, the stem and the sleeves needed to guide the stem (but the trim composition may vary from valve to valve, example the trim of a gate valve differs from the trim of a ball valve). Valves performance is impacted by the quality of the disc / seat interface. The trim allows a valve to control the fluid flow: in the case of valves where the trim executes a rotational motion, the disc slides on the seat determines specific outlets for the flow (ball valves); in the cas of valves that have linear motion trims (example gate valves) the disc slides perpendicularly on the seat to open or close the flow of the fluid.

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VALVE DISC

 VALVE DISC

The disc is the component that permits, throttles or stops the flow of the fluid, depending on its relative position to the seat. In the case of a plug or a ball valve, the disc is named plug or a ball.

The disc is the third most important primary pressure part of a valve, after the body and the bonnet. When the valve is closed, the disc shall withstand the full pressure of the fluid. Discs are generally manufactured out of forged steel, and in some designs, are hard faced to provide stronger wear properties to the valve. Most valves are named by the specific design of their disc.

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VALVE SEAT

 VALVE SEAT

Seats accommodate the movements of the disc, and valves may have one or multiple seats. Globe or a swing-check valve usually have one seat that, in connection with the disc, creates a seal able to stop the flow of the fluid. Gate valves instead have two seats, one on the upper side and the other on the bottom side. To enhance the wear resistance of the seats their surface is often hard-faced by welding and the contact surface of the seal rings are finely machined. A proper finish of the seating area surface is required to have a good seal when the valve is in the closed position. Seal rings are not usually considered pressure retaining parts of the valve.

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VALVE STEM

 VALVE STEM

The stem of a valve is used to maneuver the valve (open / close) because it moves the disc inside the valve. The stem is linked to the valve actuator or to the manual hand wheel (or lever) at one end, and is connected to the valve disc on the other end. In the case of gate and globe valves, the stem exercises a linear motion on the disc, whereas for ball, butterfly and plug valves the disc rotates to open or close the valve (therefore such valves are called "quarter turn valves"). Stems are made of forged steel and are connected to the disc by threading or other means. To prevent the leakages of the valve, a proper finish of the stem surface is necessary.

There are five types of valve stems:

  • Rising type with outside screw and yoke (“OS&Y”): the external side of the stem is threaded while the part of the stem which is inside the valve is plain. The threads of the stem are isolated from the medium by the packing. Two alternative designs are available. The "OS&Y" design is common for valves above 2’’.
  • Rising type with an inside screw (“IS&Y”): The threaded part of the stem is positioned inside the valve body, whereas the stem packing lays outside. With this design, the stem threads are in touch with the medium flowing through the pipeline. Once rotated, the stem and the hand wheel rise together and open the valve.
  • Non-rising stem type with inside screw: The threaded part of the stem is inside the valve and does not rise. The valve disc floats on the stem, like a nut if the stem is rotated. Stem threads are in contact with the media of the pipeline, and as such, may be exposed to its corrosive impact. This is the reason why such design is used when the available space to position the valve is too narrow to permit linear movement, and the media does not cause erosion, corrosion or abrasion of the stem material.
  • Sliding Stem: In this case the stem does not execute any rotation. The stem slides in and out the valve to open or close it. This design is common in hand-operated lever rapid opening valves. It is also used in control valves are operated by hydraulic or pneumatic cylinders.
  • Rotary Stem: This is a standard type for ball, plug, and butterfly valves. A quarter-turn motion of the stem opens or closes the valve.
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VALVE PACKING

 VALVE PACKING

The gasket that seals the stem with the bonnet is called packing, and comprises the following components:

  • Gland follower, which is a sleeve that compresses the packing, by a gland into the stuffing box.
  • Gland, a type of bushing, which compresses the packing into the stuffing box.
  • Stuffing box, a chamber in which the packing gets compressed.
  • Packing, available in different materials, like PTFE, elastomers, fibrous material, etc.
  • A backseat is a seating inside the bonnet. The backseat provides a seal between the stem and bonnet and prevents system pressure from building against the valve packing once the valve is fully open. Back seats are often used in gate and globe valves.
  • The valve packaging shall be properly designed and manufacture to minimize the possible damages to the stem and minimize the risk of leakages of fluids. On the other hand, it is necessary to observe that a too tight packing may affect the stem.
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VALVE ACTUATOR

 VALVE ACTUATOR

A hand operated or manual valve is generally equipped with a hand wheel that can be rotated clockwise or counter clockwise to open and / or close the valve (typical for gate and globe valves). Ball, plug or butterfly are actuated using a lever (manual quarter turn valves).

In the following cases, it is not either possible nor desirable use a manual valve:

  • Large dimension valves that operate at high pressures
  • Valves that need to be controlled from a remote location
  • Valves that require, for the nature of the process, a very fast open or close operation

In all these cases, a valve actuator is needed. The actuator produces linear and rotary motion able to open ot close a valve (the actual movement depends of course on the type of the valve, linear or quarter turn). The most commonly used valve actuators are:

  • Gear Actuators
  • Electric actuators
  • Pneumatic actuators (pneumatic control valves use this type frequently)
  • Hydraulic actuators
  • Gas over oil actuators
  • Solenoid Actuators

Rotork actuators and Auma actuators have the largest marketshares within the petrochemical industry.

VALVE ACTUATOR

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 VALVES TYPES

Vallves can be classified based on the specific movement of the disc:

  • LINEAR MOTION VALVES: Valves in which the closing element moves in a straight line to allow, stop, or throttle the flow (gate, globe, diaphragm, pinch and check Valves)
  • ROTARY MOTION VALVES: Valves in which the closing element moves with an angular or a circular path, as it happens for butterfly valves, ball, plug, eccentric- and swing check valves
  • QUARTER TURN VALVES: Those are the valves that require approximately a quarter turn motion, from 0 to 90°, of the stem to move from fully close to fully open position or vice versa.

More in detail, the main types of petrochemical valves (API valves, ASME valves, EN valves) are:

GATE VALVE

 GATE VALVE

Gate valves are designed to manage the cut off of a fluid's flow (on-off). Gate valves close / open the flow of the fluid by the slide of a gate, that is called wedge, between two parallel or oblique seats rings positioned perpendicular to the flow. The flow, in the case of a gate valve, is horizontal and straight through; therefore, frictional losses (pressure drops) are low. Gate valves are not suited to modulate the flow as the high speed of the fluid may create damage at the wedge and the seats when the valve is partly open. Under normal conditions, the valve remains either fully open or fully closed. The installation of a gate valve is independent of the flow direction. Knife gate valves are special types of gate valves. In specific cases, pressure seal gate valves are used.

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GLOBE VALVE

 GLOBE VALVE

Globe valves are on / off valves in which the disc moves on and off the seat, therefore the port is open or closed in proportion to the motion and position of the disc. Globe valves are used to regulate the flow rate of the fluid in the pipeline. Globe valves are also suited for on/off duties that require the frequent opening and closing of the flow, due to the short distance of the disc between the open and the closed position. Globe valves are unidirectional valves and are installed so that fluid pressure happens under the disc. Globe valves are supplied in various models, sizes and material grades to cover the various requirements in terms of fluids, working temperatures and pressures. A last consideration about gate valve vs globe valves: gate valves are generally preferred for on/off functions, whereas globe valves are used for flow modulation. For high pressure applications, pressure seal globe valves are generally used to modulate the flow of the media.

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CHECK VALVE

 CHECK VALVE

Check valves (also called non-return valve) are typically used to protect equipment as pumps, as they impede the reversal of the flow in case of pipelines back pressures. Check valves provide a tight seal as well as a fast closing reaction in case of unwanted back-flows. Swing type check valves are the most common type of check valves and are designed to produce a low-pressure drop in the pipeline. Compared to API 600 design, widely used for petrochemical applications, API 603 are suited with the corrosive media and abrasive conditions normally happening within the fine chemical processes. High-pressure check valves are also available on the market, and they have pressure seal cover with different configurations. Dual plate valves are generally considered within the check valves family of valves.

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BALL VALVE

 BALL VALVE

Ball valves are fitted with a spherical disc, that controls the flow of the fluid in the pipeline. Indeed, the ball has a hole through which the flow passes once the hole is aligned with the two ends of the valve. Otherwise, when the hole is in a perpendicular position to the valve ends, the flow is closed. The lever of the valve is aligned to the position of the ball, so the open / close status of a ball valve is clearly visible. The two main types of ball valves are the floating ball valves and the trunnion mounted ball valves. Floating ball valves have no support for the ball, whereas the ball of trunnion ball valves is held in place by a support (trunnion). Both types can be side entry or top entry. Three-way ball valves (3-way ball valve) are also available on the market.

Ball valves, as well as butterfly valves and plug valves, belong to the family of quarter turn valves.

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BUTTERFLY VALVE

 BUTTERFLY VALVE

Butterfly valves are used to cut off or modulate a fluid's flow. They are preferred to other valves since they are cheaper and lighter. The key part of a butterfly valve, the disc, is positioned at the center of the pipe and the disc is connected via a rod to an external actuator. Differently from a ball valve, the disc is always present within the flow and creates a specific pressure drop. A butterfly valve is classified as a quarter-turn valve. Resilient butterfly valves (otherwise defined “concentric butterfly valves”) have seats in sodt material (EDPM, VITON, NBR, BUNA-N seats or similar) and have lowest pressure ratings than high-performance valves (also called double eccentric butterfly valves). A third type of butterfly valve that has a metal to metal seal is the triple eccentric butterfly valves (sometimes also called triple offset butterfly valve). Butterfly valves used in petrochemical are manufactured in accordance with the API 609 Norm.

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Y STRAINER and BASKET STRAINER

 Y STRAINER and BASKET STRAINER

Y-strainers are used to filter solids from a the fluid flowing in a pipeline by using a perforated or wire mesh filtering element (i.e. the strainer). Strainers are relatively cheap means of protecting downstream mechanical equipment from damages due to debris like rust, pipe scale, sediment, and other solids that may flow together with the conveyed fluid.

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PLUG VALVE

 PLUG VALVE

There are three different designs of plug valves. Short pattern design plug valves have a compact face to face dimensions and port areas accounting for 40% to 60% of a full bore plug valve. Regular pattern plug valves have longer face to face dimensions and a port area of 50-70% the full bore plug valves and are designed to provides minimal loss of flow. Full bore design: full bore plug valves have long face to face dimensions and round port that above the minimum diameter specified in the annex of ASME B16.34 or/and API 6D. This configuration provides unrestricted flow and allows pigging operations of the pipeline. The industrial plug valve is one of the oldest types of valves, the first applications are found back during the times of the Roman Empire.

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PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE

 PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE

The goal of a pressure relief valves (PRV valve or safety valve) is to release over pressures happening within equipment (example boilers, pressure vessels) or pipelines; indeed pressure relief valves open automatically as a set pressure (or temperature) is exceeded and the overpressure is released. Pressure relief valves are available in most material grades from carbon steel to stainless steel and are suitable to manage over pressure of any fluid (hydrocarbons, gas, steam or water). One of the main components of pressure relief valves is the spring. PRV valves can be used as a safety valve or a relief valve depending on the application.

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 VALVES CONTROL VALVES

A control valve, otherwise defined as flow control valve, is used to control parameters such as process pressure, temperature, level, flow, pressure. Control valves open or close the flow (partly or totally) on the basis of signals captured by specific sensors that compare actual process to target values. Control functions can be attributed to globe valves (globe control valve or “S-shaped” control valve), butterfly (butterfly control valve) and ball valves (ball control valve). Solenoid valves generally provide control functions in a piping system.

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VALVES SELECTION GUIDELINE VALVES SELECTION GUIDELINE

 VALVES DIMENSION AND WEIGHTS

VALVE TYPE NPS RATING / CLASS
CAST BODY 1/4 ’’- 64’’ (and above) The pressure / temperature rating of a valve is defined by the valve class.
ASME B16.34 foresees three types of classes: standard, special, and limited. ASME B16.34 designates classes 150, 300, 400, 600, 900, 1500, 2500, and 4500 valves.
FORGED BODY 3/8’’ and above

 API, ASME, BS VALVE NORMS

VALVE TYPE NORM
GATE VALVE API 600, API 603, API 6D latest edition, ASME B16.34 latest revision, TAPPI (knife gate).
GLOBE VALVE BS 1873, API 603, ASME B16.34
CHECK VALVE API 594 (dual plate check valve), API 603, BS 1868
GATE, GLOBE, CHECK VALVE (FORGED) API 602-ISO 15761, ASME B16.34, BS 5351/5352
BALL VALVE API 6D, ASME B16.34, BS 5351
BUTTERFLY VALVE API 609, MSS SP 67, MSS SP 68
PLUG VALVE API 6A, API 6D
STRAINER ASME B16.34
PRESSURE RELIEF API API 526

Main ASME norms related to valves:

  • ASME B16.10 Valves’ face to face dimension: This Standard covers the face-to-face dimensions of straight flow valves as well as the end center-to-face and center-to-end dimensions of angular flow valves. The scope of the norm is to ensure standardization and interchangeability of valves produced by different factories.
  • ASME B16.34 Flanged, Threaded and Welded Ends Valves: This standard refers to the construction, the dimensions, the tolerances, the materials, the nondestructive examination, the testing and marking for cast and forged valves. The norm applies to valves with any end connection, such as flanged, threaded, wafer, flangeless and any material grade such as steel, nickel-base alloys, and other alloys.

 VALVES DESIGN AND MANUFACTIRING STANDARDS ISO, ASME, API

ISO API/ASME DESCRIPTION
ISO 5208:1993   Pressure testing of valves - Industrial
ISO 5209:1977   Marking - General purpose industrial valves
ISO 5752:1982   Metal valves for use in flanged pipe systems - Face-to-face and centre-to-face dimensions
ISO 5996:1984   Cast iron gate valves
ISO 6002:1992   Bolted bonnet steel gate valves
ISO 7121:1986   Flanged steel ball valves
ISO 7259:1988   Key-operated cast iron gate valves for underground use
ISO 10423:2003 API 6A Wellhead and Christmas Tree Equipment Specification
ISO 10434:2004 API 600 Bolted bonnet steel gate valves for the petroleum, petrochemical and allied industries
ISO 10497:2004 API 607 Testing of valves - Fire type-test requirements (Fire Test for Soft-Seated Quarter-Turn Valves)
ISO 10631:1994   Metallic butterfly valves for general purposes
ISO 12149:1999   Bolted bonnet steel globe valves for general-purpose applications
ISO 14313 API 6D Specification for Pipeline Valves
ISO 15156 NACE MR0175 NACE MR0175, Petroleum and natural gas industries - Materials for use in H2S-containing environments in oil and gas production
ISO 15761:2002 API 602 - (Incorporates BS5352) Steel gate, globe and check valves for sizes DN 100 and smaller, for the petroleum and natural gas industries
ISO 15848-1:2006   Industrial valves - Measurement, test and qualification procedures for fugitive emission Part 1: Classification system and qualification procedures for type testing of valves
ISO 17292:2004   Metal ball valves for petroleum, petrochemical and allied industries
  API 591 User Acceptance of Refinery Valves
  API 598 Valve Inspection and Testing
  API 600 Steel Gate Valves
  API 602 Compact Carbon Steel Gate Valves
  API 603 Cast, Corrosion Resistant Gate Valves
  API 608 Metal Ball Valves-Flanged, Threaded and Butt-Welding Ends (150&300)
  API 17D Specification for Subsea Wellhead and Christmas Tree Equipment
  API 6FA Specification for Fire Test for Valves
  API 622 Type Testing of Process Valve Packing for Fugitive Emissions
  ASME B16.34 Valves 2 Flanged, Threaded, and Buttwelded End
  ASME B16.10 Face-to-Face and End-to-End Dimensions of Valves
  ASME B16.5 Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings
  ASME B16.25 Buttwelded Ends
  ASME B16.11 Forged Fittings, Socket Welding and Threaded

 VALVES FACE TO FACE DIMENSIONS ASME B16.10 (in mm)

 ASME B16.10 CLASS 150

150# Ball Long Pattern Ball Short Pattern Gate Solid Wedge and Double Disc Gate Conduit Plug Short Pattern Plug Regular Pattern Plug Venturi Pattern Plug Round Port Full Bore Globe Lift and Swing Check Y-Globe and Y-Swing Check
1/2 108 108 108 - - - - - 108 140
3/4 117 117 117 - - - - - 117 152
1 127 127 127 - 140 - - 176 127 165
1 1/4 140 140 140 - - - - - 140 184
1 1/2 165 165 165 - 165 - - 222 165 203
178 178 178 178 178 - 178 267 203 229
190 190 190 190 190 - - 298 216 279
3 203 203 203 203 203 - 203 343 241 318
4 229 229 229 229 229 305 229 432 292 368
5 - - 254 - 254 381 - - 356 -
6 394 267 267 267 267 394 394 - 406 470
8 457 292 292 292 292 457 457 - 495 597
10 533 330 330 330 330 533 533 - 622 673
12 610 356 356 356 356 610 610 - 698 775
14 686 381 381 381 - 686 686 - 787 -
16 762 406 406 406 - 762 762 - 914 -
18 864 - 432 432 - 864 864 - 978 -
20 914 - 457 457 - 914 914 - 978 -
22 - - - 508 - - - - 1067 -
24 1067 - 508 508 - 1067 1067 - 1295 -
26 - - 559 559 - - - - 1295 -
28 - - 610 610 - - - - 1448 -
30 - - 610 660 - - - - 1524 -
32 - - - 711 - - - - - -
34 - - - 762 1016 - - - - -
36 - - 711 813 - - - - 1956 -
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 ASME B16.10 CLASS 300

300# Ball Long Pattern Ball Short Pattern Gate Solid Wedge and Double Disc and Conduit Plug Short and Venturi Pattern Plug Regular Pattern Plug Round Port Full Bore Globe and Lift Check Swing Check
1/2 140 140 140 - - - 152 -
3/4 152 152 152 - - - 178 -
1 165 165 165 159 - 190 203 216
1 1/4 178 178 178 - - - 216 229
1 1/2 190 190 190 190 - 241 229 241
216 216 216 216 - 282 267 267
241 241 241 241 - 330 292 292
3 282 282 282 282 - 387 318 318
4 305 305 305 305 - 457 356 356
5 - - 381 - - - 400 400
6 403 403 403 403 403 559 444 444
8 502 419 419 419 502 686 559 533
10 568 457 457 457 568 826 622 622
12 648 502 502 502 711 965 711 711
14 762 572 762 762 762 - - 838
16 838 610 838 838 838 - - 864
18 914 660 914 914 914 - - 978
20 991 711 991 991 991 - - 1016
22 1092 - 1092 1092 1092 - - 1118
24 1143 813 1143 1143 1143 - - 1346
26 1245 - 1245 1245 1245 - - 1346
28 1346 - 1346 1346 1346 - - 1499
30 1397 - 1397 1397 1397 - - 1594
32 1524 - 1524 1524 1524 - - -
34 1626 - 1626 1626 1626 - - -
36 1727 - 1727 1727 1727 - - 2083
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 ASME B16.10 CLASS 600

600# Ball Long Pattern Gate Solid Wedge and Double Disc and Conduit Long Pattern Plug Regular and Venturi Pattern Plug Round Port Full Bore Globe Lift Check and Swing Check Long Pattern
1/2 165 165 - - 165
3/4 190 190 - - 190
1 216 216 216 254 216
1 1/4 229 229 229 - 229
1 1/2 241 241 241 318 241
292 292 292 330 292
330 330 330 381 330
3 356 356 356 444 356
4 432 432 432 508 432
5 - 508 - - 508
6 559 559 559 660 559
8 660 660 660 794 660
10 787 787 787 940 787
12 838 838 838 1067 838
14 889 889 889 - 889
16 991 991 991 - 991
18 1092 1092 1092 - 1092
20 1194 1194 1194 - 1194
22 1295 1295 1295 - 1295
24 1397 1397 1397 - 1397
26 1448 1448 1448 - 1448
28 1549 1549 - - 1600
30 1651 1651 1651 - 1651
32 1778 1778 1778 - -
34 1930 1930 1930 - -
36 2083 2083 2083 - 2083
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 ASME B16.10 CLASS 900

900 # Gate Solid Wedge and Double Disc and Conduit Long Pattern Plug Regular and Venturi Pattern Plug Round Port Full Bore Globe Lift Check and Swing Check Long Pattern Ball Long Pattern
3/4 - - - 229 -
1 254 254 - 254 254
279 279 - 279 279
305 305 356 305 305
2 368 368 381 368 368
419 419 432 419 419
3 381 381 470 381 381
4 457 457 559 457 457
5 559 - - 559 -
6 610 610 737 610 610
8 737 737 813 737 737
10 838 838 965 838 838
12 965 965 1118 965 965
14 1029 - - 1029 1029
16 1130 1130 - 1130 1130
18 1219 - - 1219 1219
20 1321 1321 - 1321 1321
22 - - - - -
24 1549 - - 1549 1549
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 ASME B16.10 CLASS 1500

1500# Gate Solid Wedge Double Disc and Conduit Long Pattern Plug Regular and Venturi Pattern Plug Round Port Full Bore Globe Lift Check and Swing Check Short Pattern Ball Long Pattern
1/2 - - - 216 -
3/4 - - - 229 -
1 254 254 - 254 -
279 279 - 279 -
305 305 - 305 -
2 368 368 391 368 368
419 419 454 419 419
3 470 470 524 470 470
4 546 546 625 546 546
5 673 - - 673 -
6 705 705 787 705 705
8 832 832 889 832 832
10 991 991 1067 991 991
12 1130 1130 1219 1130 1130
14 1257 - - 1257 1257
16 1384 1384 - 1384 1384
18 1537 - - 1537 -
20 1664 - - 1664 -
22 - - - - -
24 1943 - - 1943 -
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 ASME B16.10 CLASS 2500

2500# Gate Solid Wedge Double Disc and Conduit Long Pattern Plug Regular Pattern Globe Lift Check and Swing Check Long Pattern Ball Long Pattern
1/2 264 - 264 -
3/4 273 - 273 -
1 308 308 308 -
349 - 349 -
384 384 384 -
2 451 451 451 451
508 508 508 508
3 578 578 578 578
4 673 673 673 673
5 794 794 794 -
6 914 914 914 914
8 1022 1022 1022 1022
10 1270 1270 1270 1270
12 1422 1422 1422 1422
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 P&ID SYMBOLS FOR VALVES

P&ID SYMBOLS FOR VALVES

 VALVES MATERIAL GRADES

 COMMON CASTING MATERIALS FOR PETROCHEMICAL VALVES

COMMON DESIGNATION ASTM CASTING SERVICE
Carbon Steel ASTM A216 Grade WCB Non-corrosive fluids as water, oil and gases at temperatures range -20°F (-30°C) and +800°F (+425°C)
Low Temp Carbon Steel ASTM A352 Grade LCB Low temperature to -50°F (-46°C). Use excluded above +650°F (+340°C).
Low Temp Carbon Steel ASTM A352 Grade LC1 Low temperature to -75°F (-59°C). Use excluded above +650°F (+340°C).
Low Temp Carbon Steel ASTM A352 Grade LC2 Low temperature to -100°F (-73°C). Use excluded above +650°F (+340°C).
3.1/2% Nickel Steel ASTM A352 Grade LC3 Low temperature to -150°F (-101°C). Use excluded above +650°F (+340°C).
1.1/4% Chrome 1/2% Moly Steel ASTM A217 Grade WC6 Non-corrosive fluids as water, oil and gases at temperatures range -20°F (-30°C) and +1100°F (+593°C).
2.1/4% Chrome ASTM A217 Grade C9 Non-corrosive fluids as water, oil and gases at temperatures range -20°F (-30°C) and +1100°F (+593°C).
5% Chrome 1/2% Moly ASTM A217 Grade C5 Mild corrosive or erosive applications and non-corrosive applications at temperatures between -20°F (-30°C) and +1200°F (+649°C).
9%Chrome
1% Moly
ASTM A217 Grade C12 Mild corrosive or erosive applications and non-corrosive applications at temperatures between -20°F (-30°C) and +1200°F (+649°C).
12% Chrome Steel ASTM A487 Grade CA6NM Corrosive application at temperatures between -20°F (-30°C) and +900°F (+482°C).
12% Chrome ASTM A217 Grade CA15 Corrosive application at temperatures up to +1300°F (+704°C)
316SS ASTM A351 Grade CF8M Corrosive or either extremely low or high temperature non-corrosive services between -450°F (-268°C) and +1200°F (+649°C). Above +800°F (+425°C) specify carbon content of 0.04% or greater.
347SS ASTM 351 Grade CF8C Mainly for high temperature, corrosive applications between -450°F (-268°C) and +1200°F (+649°C). Above +1000°F (+540°C) specify carbon content of 0.04% or greater.
304SS ASTM A351 Grade CF8 Corrosive or extremely high temperatures non-corrosive services between -450°F (-268°C) and +1200°F (+649°C). Above +800°F (+425°C) specify carbon content of 0.04% or greater.
304L SS ASTM A351 Grade CF3 Corrosive or non-corrosive services to +800F (+425°C).
316L SS ASTM A351 Grade CF3M Corrosive or non-corrosive services to +800F (+425°C).
Alloy-20 ASTM A351 Grade CN7M Good resistance to hot sulfuric acid to +800F (+425°C).
Monel ASTM 743 Grade M3-35-1 Weldable grade. Good resistance to corrosion by all common organic acids and salt water. Also highly resistant to most alkaline solutions to +750°F (+400°C).
Hastelloy B ASTM A743 Grade N-12M Well suited for handling hydrofluoric acid at all concentrations and temperatures. Good resistance to sulphuric and phosphoric acids to +1200°F (+649°C).
Hastelloy C ASTM A743 Grade CW-12M Good resistance to span oxidation conditions. Good properties at high temperatures. Good resistance to sulphuric and phosphoric acids to +1200°F (+649°C).
Inconel ASTM A743 Grade CY-40 Very good for high temperature service. Good resistance to spanly corrosive media and atmosphere to +800°F (+425°C).
Bronze ASTM B62 Water, oil or gas: up to 400°F. Excellent for brine and seawater service.
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 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION ASTM A216 – CARBON STEEL CASTINGS SUITABLE FOR FUSION WELDING

ASTM A216 grade WCB chemical composition

Composition, % max
Grade C Mn P S Si Cu Ni Cr Mo V
WCA UNS J02502 0.25(1) 0.70(1) 0.04 0.045 0.60 0.30 0.50 0.50 0.20 1.00
WCB UNS J03002 0.30(2) 1.00(2) 0.04 0.045 0.60 0.30 0.50 0.50 0.20 1.00
WCC UNS J02503 0.25(3) 1.20(3) 0.04 0.045 0.60 0.30 0.50 0.50 0.20 1.00

Notes:

  1. For each reduction of 0.01% below the specified maximum Carbon content, an increase of 0.04% manganese above the specified maximum is allowed up to a maximum of 1.10%.
  2. For each reduction of 0.01% below the specified maximum Carbon content, an increase of 0.04% Mn above the specified maximum is allowed up to a maximum of 1.28%.
  3. For each reduction of 0.01% below the specified maximum Carbon content, an increase of 0.04% manganese above the specified maximum is allowed to a maximum of 1.40%.

 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION ASTM A351 – CASTINGS AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL FOR PRESSURE CONTAINING PARTS

Composition. % (max. except whers range is given)
Grade UNS C Mn Si S P Cr Ni Mo Nb V N Cu
CF3+CF3A J9270 0.03 1.5 2.0 0.040 0.040 17.0-21.0 8.0-11.0 0.50        
CF8+CF8A J9260 0.08 1.5 2.0 0.040 0.040 18.0-21.0 8.0-11.0 0.50        
CF3M+CF3MA J9280 0.03 1.5 1.50 0.040 0.040 17.0-21.0 9.0-13.0 2.0-3.0        
CF8M J9290 0.08 1.5 1.50 0.040 0.040 18.0-21.0 9.0-12.0 2.0-3.0        
CF3MN J92804 0.03 1.5 1.50 0.040 0.040 17.0-21.0 9.0-13.0 2.0-3.0     0.10-.20  
CF8C J92710 0.08 1.5 2.0 0.040 0.040 18.0-21.0 9.0-12.0 0.50 ( 1 )      
CF10 J92950 0.04-0.10 1.5 2.0 0.040 0.040 18.0-21.0 8.0-11.0 0.50        
CF10M J92901 0.04-0.10 1.5 1.50 0.040 0.040 18.0-21.0 9.0-12.0 2.0-3.0        
CH8 J9340 0.08 1.5 1.50 0.040 0.040 22.0-26.0 12.-15.0 0.50        
CH10 J93401 0.04-0.10 1.5 2.0 0.040 0.040 22.0-26.0 12.-15.0 0.50        
CH20 J93402 0.04-0.20 1.5 2.0 0.040 0.040 22.0-26.0 12.0-15.0 0.50        
CK20 J94202 0.04-0.20 1.5 1.75 0.040 0.040 23.0-27.0 19.0-22.0 0.50        
HK30 J94203 0.25-0.35 1.5 1.75 0.040 0.040 23.0-27.0 19.0-22.0 0.50        
HK40 J94204 0.35-0.45 1.5 1.75 0.040 0.040 23.0-27.0 19.0-22.0 0.50        
HT30 N08030 0.25-0.35 2.0 2.50 0.040 0.040 13.0-17.0 33.0-37.0 0.50        
CF10MC   0.10 1.50 1.50 0.040 0.040 15.0-18.0 13.0-16.0 1.7-2.25 ( 2 )      
CN7M N0807 0.07 1.50 1.50 0.040 0.040 19.0-22.0 27.5-30.5 2.0-3.0       3.0-4.0
CN3MN J94651 0.03 2.0 1.0 0.010 0.040 20.0-22.0 23.5-25.5 6.0-.0     0.18-.26 0.75
CE8MN   0.08 1.0 1.50 0.040 0.040 22.5-25.5 8.0-11.0 3.0-.5     0.10-.30  
CG-6MMN J93790 0.06 4.0-6.0 1.0 0.030 0.040 20.5-23.5 11.5-13.5 1.50-3.0 0.10-.30 0.10-.30 0.20-.40  
CG8M J9300 0.08 1.50 1.50 0.040 0.040 18.0-21.0 9.0-13.0 3.0-4.0        
CF10SMnN J92972 0.10 7.0-9.0 3.50-.50 0.030 0.060 16.0-18.0 8.0-9.0       0.08-.18  
CT15C N08151 0.05-0.15 0.15-.50 0.50-.50 0.030 0.030 19.0-21.0 31.0-.0   0.50-.50      
CK-3MCuN J93254 0.025 1.20 1.0 0.010 0.045 19.5-20.5 17.5-19.5 6.0-7.0     0.18-.24 0.50-1.0
CE20N J92802 0.20 1.50 1.50 0.040 0.040 23.0-26.0 8.0-.0 0.50     0.08-.20  
CG3M J92999 0.03 1.50 1.50 0.040 0.040 18.0-21.0 9.0-.0 3.0-4.0        

Notes:

  1. Grade CF8C shall have a Niobium content 8 times above the Carbon but not over 1.00%.
  2. Grade CF10MC shall have a Niobium content 10 times above the Carbon but not over 1.20%.

 COMMON FORGING MATERIALS FOR PETROCHEMICAL VALVES

ASTM DESIGN DESCRIPTION SERVICE CASTING COMPARISON
A105(1) Carbon Steel General service such as oil, oil vapor, gas, steam and water at temperatures -20°F to 1000°F (-28°C to 537°C). A216-WCB
A350-LF2 CL1 Low Temperature Carbon Steel Suitable for temperatures -50°F and not above 650°F (-46°C and not above 343°C). A352-LCB
A182-F11 CL2 1 1/4% Cr, 1/2% Mo Alloy Steel High temperatures from -20°F to 1100°F to minimize graphitization (-28°C to 593§C). A217-WC6
A182-F22 CL3 (2) 2 1/4% Cr, 1% Mo Alloy Steel For services requiring greater strength than F11 at temperatures from -20°F to 1100°F (-28°C to 593°C). A217-WC9
A182-F5 5% Cr, 1/2% Mo Alloy Steel For corrosive/erosive refinery use requiring resistance at temperatures from -20°F to 1100§F (-28°C to 590°C). A217-C5
A182-F9 9% Cr, 1% Mo Alloy Steel For services involving media with higher Sulphur content to combat oxidation to 1100oF (593°C). A217-C12
A182-F304 18% Cr, 8% Ni Stainless Steel For corrosive services and atmospheres from -450°F to 1000°F (-268°C to 537°C). A351-CF8
A182-F316 18% Cr, 8% Ni, 2% Mo Stainless Steel For superior resistance to corrosion from -450°F to 1000°F (-268°C to 537°C). A351-CF8M
  1. Allowed but not recommended for long term use above 800oF (425oC)
  2. Warning to the possibility of excessive oxidation (scaling) when used above 1050oF (563oC)

 SPECIAL FORGING MATERIALS FOR PETROCHEMICAL VALVES

MATERIAL DESCRIPTION SERVICE
HASTELLOY
(C2, C4, B2, C276…)
Nickel Alloy Good high temperature properties. Excellent corrosion resistance in hydrochloric acid.
INCONEL 600 / INCONEL 625 / INCOLOY 800 Nickel Alloy For high temperature service. Nuclear applications.
MONEL 400 / MONEL K500 Nickel-Copper Alloy For corrosive service up to 842oF (450oC). Resistant to sea water, acids, alkalies.
TITANIUM GR 1-GR 11 Transition Metal Good resistance to corrosion together with low specific weight.
ASTM A182 F20 Alloy 20 - Specialty Alloy For corrosive service such as hot sulphuric acid. Resists -49oF to 600oF (-45oC to 316oC).
ASTM A182 F51 Ferritic-Austenitic Stainless Steel Very high strength, resistance to corrosion, pitting and stress corrosion in chloride media.
ASTM A182 F44 Austenitic Stainless Steel Very high strength, high resistance to corrosion.
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 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION ASTM A105 – CARBON STEEL FORGINGS FOR PIPING APPLICATIONS

Composition, %
Element C Mn P S Si Cu Ni Cr Mo V
0.35 max 0.60-1.05 0.035 max 0.040
max
0.10-0.35 0.40
max (1)
0.40
max (1)
0.30
max (1-2)
0.12
max (1-2)
0.08
max
 

Notes:

  1. The total of Cu, Ni, Niobium, Moly and Vanadium shall not exceed 1.00%.
  2. The sum of Niobium and Molybdenum shall not exceed 0.32%.

 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION ASTM A182 FORGED STAINLESS STEEL FOR VALVES

Composition, %
Grade C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo Nb Ti Others
F304(1) 0.08 2.0 0.045 0.030 1.0 8.0-11.0 18.0-20.0        
F304H 0.04-0.10 2.0 0.045 0.030 1.0 8.0-11.0 18.0-20.0        
F304L(1) 0.030 2.0 0.045 0.030 1.0 8.0-13.0 18.0-20.0        
F304N(2) 0.08 2.0 0.045 0.030 1.0 8.0-10.5 18.0-20.0        
F304LN(2) 0.030 2.0 0.045 0.030 1.0 8.0-10.5 18.0-20.0        
F309H 0.04-0.10 2.0 0.045 0.030 1.0 12.0-15.0 22.0-24.0        
F310 0.25 2.0 0.045 0.030 1.0 19.0-22.0 24.0-26.0        
F310H 0.04-0.10 2.0 0.045 0.030 1.0 19.0-22.0 24.0-26.0        
F310MoLN 0.030 2.0 0.030 0.015 0.40 21.0-23.0 24.0-26.0 2.0-3.0     N 0.10-0.16
F316 0.08 2.0 0.045 0.030 1.0 10.0-14.0 16.0-18.0 2.0-3.0      
F316H 0.04-0.10 2.0 0.045 0.030 1.0 10.0-14.0 16.0-18.0 2.0-3.0      
F316L(1) 0.030 2.0 0.045 0.030 1.0 10.0-15.0 16.0-18.0 2.0-3.0      
F316N(2) 0.08 2.0 0.045 0.030 1.0 11.0-14.0 16.0-18.0 2.0-3.0      
F316LN(2) 0.030 2.0 0.045 0.030 1.0 11.0-14.0 16.0-18.0 2.0-3.0      
F316Ti 0.08 2.0 0.045 0.030 1.0 10.0-14.0 16.0-18.0 2.0-3.0   (3) N 0.10 max
F317 0.08 2.0 0.045 0.030 1.0 11.0-15.0 18.0-20.0 3.0-4.0      
F317L 0.030 2.0 0.045 0.030 1.0 11.0-15.0 18.0-20.0 3.0-4.0      
F321 0.08 2.0 0.045 0.030 1.0 9.0-12.0 17.0-19.0     (4)  
F321H 0.04-0.10 2.0 0.045 0.030 1.0 9.0-12.0 17.0-19.0     (5)  
F347 0.08 2.0 0.045 0.030 1.0 9.0-13.0 17.0-20.0   (6)    
F347H 0.04-0.10 2.0 0.045 0.030 1.0 9.0-13.0 17.0-20.0   (7)    
F348 0.08 2.0 0.045 0.030 1.0 9.0-13.0 17.0-20.0   (6)   Co 0.20
Ta 0.10
F348H 0.04-0.10 2.0 0.045 0.030 1.0 9.0-13.0 17.0-20.0   (7)   Co 0.20
Ta 0.10

Notes:

  1. Grades F304, F304L, F316, and F316L shall have a maximum Nitrogen of 0.10%.
  2. Grades F304N, F316N, F304LN, and F316LN shall have a Nitrogen of 0.10 to 0.16%.
  3. Grade F316Ti shall have a Titanium content five times above the Carbon plus Nitrogen and not more than 0.70%.
  4. Grade F321 shall have a Titanium content five times above the Carbon and not more than 0.70%.
  5. Grade F321H shall have a Titanium content four times above the Carbon and not more than 0.70%.
  6. Grades F347 and F348 shall have a Niobium content ten times above the Carbon and not more than 1.10%.
  7. Grades F347H and F348H shall have a Niobium content above than eight times the Carbon and not more than 1.10%.

 API 600 VALVE TRIM CHART

API TRIM # MATERIAL SEAT DISC BACKSEAT STEM
1 410 410 410 410 410
2 304 304 304 304 304
3 F310 310 310 310 310
4 Hard 410 Hard 410 410 410 410
5 Hardfaced Stellite Stellite 410 410
5A Hardfaced Ni-Cr Ni-Cr 410 410
6 410 and Cu-Ni Cu-Ni Cu-Ni 410 410
7 410 and Hard 410 Hard 410 Hard 410 410 410
8 410 and Hardfaced Stellite 410 410 410
8A 410 and Hardfaced Ni-Cr 410 410 410
9 Monel Monel Monel Monel Monel
10 316 316 316 316 316
11 Monel Stellite Monel Monel Monel
12 316 and Hardfaced Stellite 316 316 316
13 Alloy 20 Alloy 20 Alloy 20 Alloy 20 Alloy 20
14 Alloy 20 and Hardfaced Stellite Alloy 20 Alloy 20 Alloy 20
15 304 and Hardfaced Stellite Stellite 304 304
16 316 and Hardfaced Stellite Stellite 316 316
17 347 and Hardfaced Stellite Stellite 347 347
18 Alloy 20 and Hardfaced Stellite Stellite Alloy 20 Alloy 20
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 VALVE SERVICE AND TRIM SELECTION

TRIM RECOMMENDED SERVICE
13% Cr, Type 410 Stainless Steel For oil and oil vapors and general services with heat treated seats and wedges.
13% Cr, Type 410 plus Hardfacing Universal trim for general service requiring long service life up to 1100°F (593°C).*
Type 316 Stainless For liquids and gases which are corrosive to 410 Stainless Steel, up to 1000°F (537°C).*
Monel For corrosive service to 842°F (450°C) such as acids, alkalies, salt solutions, etc.
Alloy 20 For corrosive service such as hot acids -49°F to 608oF (-45°C to 320°C).
NACE Specially treated 316 or 410 trim combined optionally with B7M Bolts and 2HM nuts to meet NACE MR-01-75 requirements.
Full Stellite Full hard faced trim, suitable for abrasive & severe services up to 1200°F (650°C).*

* Depends upon base material grade

 COMPARISON CHART ASTM, DIN BODY/BONNET MATERIALS

MATERIAL NAME NOMINAL UNS FRGD CAST DIN WERK SERVICE
Carbon Steel CS C-Mn-Fe K03504 A105N A216-WCB C22.8 DIN 17243 1.0460 General non-corrosive service from -20F(-29C) to 800F(427C)
Low Temperature Carbon Steel LTCS C-Mn-Fe K03011 A350-LF2 A352-LCA A352-LCB A352-LCC TSTE 355 DIN 18103 1.0566 General non-corrosive service from -50F
(-46C) to 650F(340C), LF2 to 800F(427C).
Low Temperature Alloy Steel Nickel Steel 3.1/2Ni K32025 A350-LF3 A352-LC3 10Ni14 1.5637 -150F(-101C) to 650F(340C)
Low Alloy Steel Moly Steel C-1/2Mo K12822 A182-F1 A217-WC1 15MO3 1.5415 Up to 875F (468C)
Alloy Steel Chrome Moly 1.1/4Cr-1/2Mo K11572 A182-F11 cl2 A217-WC6 13CRMO44 1.7335 Up to 1100F (593C)
2.1/4Cr-1Mo K21590 A182-F22 cl3 A217-WC9 10CRMO910 1.7380 Up to 1100F(593C), HP steam
5Cr-1/2Mo K41545 A182-F5 A217-C5 12CRMO195 1.7362 High temp refinery service
9Cr-1Mo K90941 A182-F9 A217-C12 X 12 CrMo 9 1 1.7386 High temp erosive refinery service
9Cr-1Mo-V   A182-F91 A217-C12A X 10 CrMoVNb 9 1 1.4903 High pressure steam
Stainless Steel Austenitic S.Steel 300 series S.Steel 304 : 18Cr-8Ni S30400 A182-F304 A351-CF8 DIN X5CrNi 18 9 1.4301 0.04% min. carbon for temp.>1000F(538C)
304L : 18Cr-8Ni S30403 A182-F304L A351-CF3 X 2 CrNi 19 11 1.4306 Up to 800F(427C)
304H : S30409 A182-F304H   n/a n/a  
316 : 16Cr-12Ni-2Mo S31600 A182-F316 A351-CF8M DIN X5CrNiMo 18 10 1.4401 0.04% min. carbon for temp.>1000F(538C)
316L : 16Cr-12Ni-2Mo S31603 A182-F316L A351-CF3M X 5 CrNiMo 17 12 2 1.4404 Up to 800F(427C)
316H : S31609 A182-F316H   n/a n/a  
316Ti: S31635 A182-F316Ti   X 6 CrNiMoTi 17 12 2 1.4571  
321: 18Cr-10Ni-Ti S32100 A182-F321   X 6 CrNiTi 18 10 1.4541 0.04% min. carbon (grade F321H) and heat treat at 2000F(1100C) for service temps.>1000F(538C)
321H S32109 A182-F321H   n/a n/a
347: 18Cr-10Ni-Cb(Nb) S34700 A182-F347 A351-CF8C DIN 8556 1.4550 0.04% min. carbon (grade F347H) and heat treat at 2000F(1100C) for service temps.>1000F(538C)
347H S34709 A182-F347H   n/a n/a
317L S31703 A182-F317L A351-CG3M X2CrNiMo18-16-4 1.4438  
Alloy 20 28Ni-19Cr-Cu-Mo N08020 A182-F20 A351-CN7M DIN 1.4500 2.4660 service to 600F(316C)
Duplex 2205 22Cr-5Ni-3Mo-N S31803 S32205 A182-F51 A890-J92205 X2CrNiMON22-5-3 DIN 10088-1 (95) 1.4462 service to 600F(316C) -The original S31803 UNS designation has been supplemented by S32205 which has higher minimum N, Cr, and Mo.
Super Duplex 2507 25Cr-7Ni-4Mo-N S32750 A182-F53 A351-CD4MCu A890 5A X2CrNiMoN25-7-4 DIN 10088-1 (95) 1.4501 service to 600F(316C)
Super Austenitic 6Mo 20Cr-18Ni-6Mo S31254 A182-F44 A351-CK3MCuN X1CrNiMoCuN20-18-7 DIN 10088-1 (95) 1.4547 service to 600F(316C)
Nickel-Iron Alloy Incoloy 800 33Ni-42Fe-21Cr N08800 B564-N08800   X10NiCrAlTi32-20 1.4876 service to 1000F(538C)
Incoloy 825 42Ni-21.5Cr-3Mo-2.3Cu N08825 B564-N08825 A494-CU5MCuC DIN 17744 2.4858 service to 600F(316C) for N02200, 1200F(648C) for N02201
Nickel Nickel 99/95Ni N02200 B160-N02200 (bar) A494-CZ-100 NW2200 1.7740  
Nickel-Copper Monel 400 67Ni-30Cu N04400 B564-N04400 A494-M35-1 DIN 17730 2.4360  
Monel 500   N05500 B564-N05500     2.4375  
Nickel-Alloy 904L   N08904 904L n/a Z2 NCDU 25-20 1.4539  
Nickel Superalloys Inconel 600 72Ni-15Cr-8Fe N06600 B564-N06600 A494-CY40 DIN 17742 2.4816  
Inconel 625 60Ni-22Cr-9Mo-3.5Cb N06625 B564-N06625* A494-CW-6MC   2.4856 *Difficult to forge in close dye
Hastelloy C-276 54Ni-15Cr-16Mo N10276 B564-N10276* A494-CW-2M NiMo 16 Cr 15 W 2.4819 *Difficult to forge in close dye
Titanium Titanium 98Ti R50400 B381-Gr2 B367-C2 Ti 2 3.7035  
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 PIPING ASTM GRADES (PIPES, BUTT WELD FITTINGS, FORGED FITTINGS, VALVES, BOLTS)

MATERIAL PIPES BW FITTINGS FORGINGS VALVES BOLT SETS
Carbon Steel A106 Gr A A234 Gr WPA A105 A216 Gr WCB A193 Gr B7
A194 Gr 2H
A106 Gr B A234 Gr WPB A105 A216 Gr WCB
A106 Gr C A234 Gr WPC A105 A216 Gr WCB
Carbon Steel
Alloy
 High-Temp
A335 Gr P1 A234 Gr WP1 A182 Gr F1 A217 Gr WC1 A193 Gr B7
A194 Gr 2H
A335 Gr P11 A234 Gr WP11 A182 Gr F11 A217 Gr WC6
A335 Gr P12 A234 Gr WP12 A182 Gr F12 A217 Gr WC6
A335 Gr P22 A234 Gr WP22 A182 Gr F22 A217 Gr WC9
A335 Gr P5 A234 Gr WP5 A182 Gr F5 A217 Gr C5
A335 Gr P9 A234 Gr WP9 A182 Gr F9 A217 Gr C12
Carbon Steel
Alloy
Low-Temp
A333 Gr 6 A420 Gr WPL6 A350 Gr LF2 A352 Gr LCB A320 Gr L7
A194 Gr 7
A333 Gr 3 A420 Gr WPL3 A350 Gr LF3 A352 Gr LC3
Austenitic
Stainless
Steel
A312 Gr TP304 A403 Gr WP304 A182 Gr F304 A182 Gr F304 A193 Gr B8
A194 Gr 8
A312 Gr TP316 A403 Gr WP316 A182 Gr F316 A182 Gr F316
A312 Gr TP321 A403 Gr WP321 A182 Gr F321 A182 Gr F321
A312 Gr TP347 A403 Gr WP347 A182 Gr F347 A182 Gr F347
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 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF COMMON VALVES MATERIALS

Material Code and Description Minimum Physical Properties Modulus Approximate
      (psi) Point (psi) in 2" (%) of Area (%)    
1 Carbon Steel ASTM A216 Grade WCB 70,000 36,000 22 35 27.9 137-1 87
2 Carbon Steel ASTM A352 Grade LCB 65,000 35,000 24 35 27.9 137-1 87
3 Chrome Moly Steel ASTM A217 Grade C5 90,000 60,000 18 35 27.4 241 Max.
4 Carbon Moly Steel ASTM A217 Grad e WC1 65,000 35,000 24 35 29.9 215 Max.
5 Chrome Moly Steel ASTM A217 Grade WC6 70,000 40,000 20 35 29.9 215 Max.
6 Chrome Moly Steel ASTM A217 Grade WC9 70,000 40,000 20 35 29.9 241 Max.
7 3 1/2% Nickel Steel ASTM A352 Grade LC3 65,000 40,000 24 35 27.9 137
8 Chrome Moly Steel ASTM A217 Grade C12 90,000 60,000 18 35 27.4 180-240
9 Stainless Steel Type 304 ASTM A351 Grade CF-8 65,000 28,000 35 - 28 140
10 Stainless Steel Type 316 ASTM A351 Grade CF-8M 70,000 30,000 30 - 28.3 156-170
11 Cast Iron ASTM A126 Class B 31,000 - - - - 160-220
12 Cast Iron ASTM A126 Class C 41,000 - - - - 160-220
13 Ductile Iron ASTM A395 Type 60-45-15 60,000 45,000 15 - 23-26 143-207
14 Ductle Ni-Resist Iron (500 KG Load) ASTM A439 Type D-2B 58,000 30,000 7 - - 148-211
15 Standard Valve Bronze ASTM B62 30,000 14,000 20 17 13.5 55-65*
16 Tin Bronze ASTM B143 Alloy 1A 40,000 18,000 20 20 15 75-85*
17 Manganese Bronze ASTM B147 Alloy 8A 65,000 25,000 20 20 15.4 98*
18 Aluminum Bronze ASTM B148 Alloy 9C 75,000 30,000 12 min. 12 17 150
19 Mondel Alloy 411 (Weldable Grade) 65,000 32,500 25 - 23 120-170
20 Nickel Moly Alloy B ASTM A494 (Hastelloy B) 72,000 46,000 6 - - -
21 Nickel Moly Chrome Alloy C ASTM A494 (Hastelloy C) 72,000 46,000 4 - - -
22 Cobalt-base Alloy No. 6 Stellite No. 6 121,000 64,000 01.feb - 30.4 -
23 Aluminum Bar ASTM B211 Alloy 20911-T3 44,000 36,000 15 - 10.2 95
24 Yellow Brass Bar ASTM B16 1/2 Hard 45,000 15,000 7 50 14 -
25 Naval Brass Bar ASTM B21 Alloy 464 60,000 27,000 22 55 - -
26 Leaded Steel Bar AISI 12L 14 79,000 71,000 16 52 - 163
27 Carbon Steel Bar ASTM A108 Grade 1018 69,000 48,000 38 62 - 143
28 AISI 4140 Chrome Moly Steel (Suitable for ASTM A193 Grade B7 bolt material) 135,000 115,000 22 63 29.9 255
29 Stainless Steel Type 302 ASTM A276 Type 302 85,000 35,000 60 70 28 150
30 Stainless Steel Type 304 ASTM A276 Type 304 85,000 35,000 60 70 - 149
31 Stainless Steel Type 316 ASTM A276 Type 316 80,000 30,000 60 70 28 149
32 Stainless Steel Type 316L ASTM A276 Type 316L 81,000 34,000 55 - - 146
33 Stainless Steel Type 410 ASTM A276 Type 410 75,000 40,000 35 70 29 155
34 Stainless Steel Type 17-4PH ASTM A461 Grade 630 135,000 105,000 16 50 29 275-345
35 Nickel Copper Alloy Bar Alloy K500 (K Monel) 100,000 70,000 35 - 26 175-260
36 Nickel Moly Alloy B Bar ASTM B335 (Hastelloy B) 100,000 46,000 30 - - -
37 Nickel Moly Alloy C Bar ASTM B336 (Hastelloy C) 100,000 46,000 20 - - -
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